Gardens  2









Palace of Fontainebleau

France; 12th-13th century; architects: Gilles Le Breton. 

More info on Wikipedia: Le Château de Fontainebleau.

Image taken from the book: "L'art des jardins: parcs, jardins, promenades" of Alfred-Auguste Ernouf,  year 1886. Source: Bibliothèque nationale de France, website: .


Michel Lasne (159X-1667): "Portrait de la Maison Royale de Fontainebleau, estampe. Source: Bibliothèque nationale de France, website: .





Le Château de Chenonceau

France; 15th century; architect: Philibert Delorme. 

More info on Wikipedia: Le Château de Chenonceau.

"Panorama van Château de Chenonceau", Indre-et-Loire, France; retouched photograph from the original by Ra-smit. Source: Wikipedia.





The Luxembourg Palace 

in Paris, France; 1615-1631; architect: Salomon de Brosse. 

More info on Wikipedia: Le Jardin du Luxembourg.

Gaspard Gobaut (1814-1882): "Le Luxembourg côté jardin", 1850.

Source: Bibliothèque nationale de France, website: .







Le Château de Chambord

near Blois, France; 1519-1547; architect: Domenico Bernabei da Cortona called "Boccador".  More info on Wikipedia: Le Château de Chambord.

Antoine Aveline (1691-1743), graveur: "Vüe de Chambor, Maison Royal de France, dans le Blesois...", estampe. Source: Bibliothèque nationale de France, website: .



"Deborah de Luca at Château de Chambord for Cercle", 2017.




"La façade nord du château de Chambord", photograph by Benh Lieu Song.  Source: Wikipedia.





Le Jardin des Tuileries

in Paris, France; 1564-1672; architects: André Le Nôtre and others. 

More info on Wikipedia: The Tuileries Garden.

Gaspard Gobaut (1814-1882): "Le palais et le jardin des Tuileries", 1847.

Source: Bibliothèque nationale de France, website: .


Jacques-François Blondel: "Architecture Françoise, ou Recueil des Plans, Elevations, Coupes et Profils des Eglises, Maisons Royales, Palais, Hôtel & Edifices les plus considérables de Paris, ainsi que des Châteaux & Maisons de ...", Paris, France, 1756. Source: ETH-Bibliothek Zürich, website:


Yoga with Angélique Thiriet at Jardin des Tuileries in Paris, 2020.



Sculpture by Aristide Maillol exposed at Jardin des Tuilerie in Paris,

photograph by Michele Leonardi.








Le Château de


near Melun, in France; 1656-1661; architects: Louis Le Vau,

Charles Le Brun, Pierre Mignard, Pierre Puget, André Le Nôtre.

More info on Wikipedia:  Le Château de Vaux-le-Vicomte.

"La façade sud du château de Vaux-le-Vicomte vue depuis le "Rond d'eau" - Maincy", photograph by Jean-Pol Grandmont. Source: Wikipedia.


"Kasteel van Vaux-le-Vicomte, Maincy", photograph by Esther Westerveld. Source: Wikipedia.






The Palace of



near Paris, in France; 1623-1683; architects: Louis Le Vau, Jules Hardouin-Mansart, Robert de Cotte, Jacques Gabriel, Ange-Jacques Gabriel, André Le Nôtre,

Frédéric Nepveu.  

More info on Wikipedia: Le Château de Versailles.



Portrait of  Louis XIV of France, "Le Roi Soleil", by Hyacinthe Rigaud, 1701, detail. Collection: Musée du Grand Louvre, Paris, France; photograph by Michele Leonardi.


Antoine Aveline (1691-1743), graveur: "Vüe et perspective du Château Royal de Versailles, du coté de l'Entrée", estampe gravée par A. Aveline, 17XX.

Source: Bibliothèque nationale de France, website: .


"Versailles: from Louis XIII to the French Revolution".  Language: English.


"Versailles: de Louis XIII à la Révolution".  Language: French.


"Ville et château de Versailles avec le château de Clagny": dessin, plan. 1714.

Source: Bibliothèque nationale de France, website: .


"Galerie des Glaces du Château de Versailles, à Versailles en France", photograph by Myrabella. Source: Wikipedia.


Gilles de Mortain: "Les plans, profils et élévations des Ville et château de Versailles...", Paris, France, 1716.

Source: ETH-Bibliothek Zürich, website:

"Versailles, construction d'un rêve impossible", régie par Cyrielle Adam, CAPA Presse, 2017.  Language: French.




The Grand Trianon 

in Versailles, near Paris, France; 1670-1708; architects: Louis Le Veau,

Jules Harduin-Mansart.  More info on Wikipedia: Le Grand Trianon.

Antoine Aveline (1691-1743), dessinateur: "Veüe et Perspective de l'Entrée de Trianon de Versailles". Source: Bibliothèque nationale de France, website: .


Source: Bibliothèque nationale de France, website: .





The Petit Trianon 

in Versailles, near Paris, France; 1762-1768; architect: Ange-Jacques Gabriel. 

More info on Wikipedia: Le Petit Trianon.






Le Château

de Champs-sur-Marne

in Paris, France; 1699-1707; architects: Pierre Bullet, Jean-Baptiste Bullet de Chamblain.  More info on Wikipedia: Le Château de Champs-sur-Marne.



Le Château de Sceaux

in Paris, France; 17th and  19th century; architects: Claude Perrault, Charles Perrault , Antoine Lepautre, Charles Le Brun, and others; design of gardens by the architect André Le Nôtre. More info on Wikipedia: Le Château de Sceaux.



Le Château de Meudon

in Paris, France; 1520 (Château vieux); 1872 (Château neuf); architects: Louis Le Vau and Jules Hardouin-Mansart More info on Wikipedia: Le Château de Meudon.




Le Château de Villandry

in Villandry, France; 16th-18th century. 

More info on Wikipedia: Le Château de Villandry.




Le Château

de  Saint-Germain-en-Laye

Paris, France; 12th-17th century; architects: Pierre Chambiges and others. 

More info on Wikipedia: Le Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye.



Le Château du Marais

near Paris, France; 1770-1779; architect: Jean-Benoît-Vincent Barré

More info on Wikipedia: Le Château du Marais.





  • Antoine-Joseph Dézallier d'Argenville:  "La Théorie et la pratique du jardinage",  Paris, France, 1713.

Text in French.

Excerpts from the book by Antoine-Joseph Dézallier d'Argenville: "La Théorie et la pratique du jardinage", Paris, France, year 1713. Source: Bibliothèque nationale de France, website: .



  • Alfred-Auguste Ernouf:  "L'art des jardins: parcs, jardins, promenades",  Rothschild Éditeur, Paris, France, 1886.

Text in French.

  • Christopher Hibbert:  "Chateaux of the Loire",  Newsweek, New York, U.S.A., 1982.
  • Jean-Marie Pérouse de Montclos: "Chateaux of the Loire Valley",  H.F. Ullmann Publishing Gmbh, Potsdam, Germany, 2011.

The architectural heritage of the French kings is nowhere as present as in the Loire valley. Magnificent castles, sophisticated gardens, and sweeping parks demonstrate both the monarchs’ power and appreciation of art, attracting and fascinating uncounted visitors to this day. Sixty of these works of art have been captured in brilliant color photographs for this book: the Hall of the States General at Blois, the Saumur and Angers fortresses, the picture-postcard castle of Azay-le-Rideau built in the middle of a river, and, impressive and shrouded in legend, the massive Chambord castle. The substantial texts describing individual castles are complemented by a map, a timetable, a genealogy of the kings of France, a glossary, and a bibliography. This is a fascinating book for all lovers of the Loire valley, all travelers, and anyone with an interest in history.


  • Monique Mosser and Georges Teyssot: "The Architecture of Western Gardens: A Design History from the Renaissance to the Present Day",  544 pages, The MIT Press, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, U.S.A., 1991.

The Architecture of Western Gardens presents an international tour of garden design from the Renaissance to the present. As object and as literature, it is a sumptuous and unprecedented resource. The more than seventy essays by scholars from Europe and America all commissioned for this book - and over 650 illustrations raise the standard of garden literature to a new level. The result is an invaluable compendium that will serve as a fundamental starting point for exploring the many expressions of the place where nature and culture, project and diversion, work and pleasure meet. Organized chronologically, the essays and illustrations make up a mosaic of the garden in the Western world. The humanist garden in Renaissance Italy, the concepts of the "Sublime" and the "Picturesque," mazes, grottoes, and other curiosities, city parks, American land art, and even Disneyland are among the topics treated. Discussions of characteristic aspects of history and theory are followed by analyses of individual gardens as paradigms of their type: the Hortus Palatinus in Heidelberg, the Parc Monceau in Paris, the Park Güell in Barcelona, Stowe in England, and many more. The illustrations are a model of how iconography can function as text. They include ground plans meticulously redrawn from original archival material to provide precise information on the scale and nature of many of the projects, as well as a wealth of drawings, reconstructions, paintings, and photographs.

  • Christian Norberg-Schulz: "Architecture baroque",  Éditions Gallimard, Paris, France, 1992.

Excellent book on Baroque architecture, written in French.

  • Christian Norberg-Schulz: "Architecture baroque tardive et rococo",  Éditions Gallimard, Paris, France, 1995.

Excellent book on Baroque architecture, written in French.




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Even the longest journey begins with a first step! Systemic Habitats is on line since the 18th of May 2012. This website was created to publish online my ebook "Towards a different habitat" on the contemporary architecture and urbanism. Later many other contents were added. For their direct or indirect contribution to its realisation strarting from 2012, we would like to thank: Roberto Vacca, Marco Pizzuti, Fiorenzo and Raffaella Zampieri, Antonella Todeschini, All the Amici di Marco Todeschini, Ecaterina Bagrin, Stefania Ciocchetti, Marcello Leonardi, Joseph Davidovits, Frédéric Davidovits, Rossella Sinisi, Pasquale Cascella, Carlo Cesana, Filippo Schiavetti Arcangeli, Laura Pane, Antonio Montemiglio, Patrizia Piras, Bruno Nicola Rapisarda, Ruberto Ruberti, Marco Cicconcelli, Ezio Prato, Sveva Labriola, Rosario Francalanza, Giacinto Sabellotti, All the Amici di Gigi, Ruth and Ricky Meghiddo, Natalie Edwards, Rafael Schmitd, Nicola Romano, Sergio Bianchi, Cesare Rocchi, Henri Bertand, Philippe Salgarolo, Paolo Piva detto il Pivapao, Norbert Trenkle, Antonietta Toscano, Gaetano Giuseppe Magro, Carlo Blangiforti, Mario Ludovico, Riccardo Viola, Giulio Peruzzi, Ahmed Elgazzar, Warren Teitz, and last but not least Lena Kudryavtseva.  M.L.
















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