Gardens   4










The Stowe House 

Stowe, Buckinghamshire, United Kingdom of G.B. and Nothern Irelans; 1677 -1779; architects: John Vanbrugh, James Gibbs.  More info on Wikipedia: The Stowe House.

Plan from N. Vergnaud architect: " L'Art de créer les Jardins", Paris, France, 1825. Source: ETH-Bibliothek Zürich, website:





The Wilton House

near Salisbury, in Wiltshire, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Nothern Ireland; 1630 and later; architects: Inigo Jones, James Wyatt.   More info on Wikipedia: The Wilton House.





Hyde Park

London, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; 1637 and later; architect: Decimus Burton and others.  More info on Wikipedia: Hyde Park.

Philip Henry Delamotte (1821–1889), photographer, Smithsonian Libraries: "The Crystal Palace"  (by Sir Joseph Paxton architect, 1803-1865), installed at Hyde Park during the Grand International Exhibition of 1851, and after at the Sydenham Wells Park. Source: Wikimedia Commons.  






Jardin des plantes

in Paris, France; 1635 and later.  More info on Wikipedia: 

Le Jardin des plantes de Paris.

Image taken from the book: "Jardin des Plantes. Les serres" by Gaëtan Cathelineau, year 1821. Source: Bibliothèque nationale de France, website:


At Jardin des Plantes, Paris. Photograph by Michele Leonardi.







The Royal Botanic Gardens

Kew, Greater London, United Kingdom; 1759 and later; architects: Sir William Chambers, Decimus Burton (the Palm House) and others. 

More info on Wikipedia: The Kew Gardens.


"Exploring The Kew Gardens". Photographs by Michele Leonardi.



"Exploring The Kew Gardens". Photographs by Michele Leonardi.


William Marlow (1740/41–1813): "View of the Lake and the Island from the Lawn at Kew", 1763. Source: THE MET - The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, U.S.A.


Image taken from the book: "L'art des jardins: parcs, jardins, promenades" of Alfred-Auguste Ernouf,  year 1886. Source: Bibliothèque nationale de France, website:


Embed from Getty Images




The King Charles III visits Kew Gardens, 2019,

Prince of Wales at the time, but it's still him:


Embed from Getty Images
Embed from Getty Images




"The Large Reclining Figure" (1984),

yet another masterwork of Henry Moore (1898-1986),

hosted near the Palm House, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 2017:

Embed from Getty Images
Embed from Getty Images
Embed from Getty Images
Embed from Getty Images





I Giardini Reali di Monza

in Monza, near Milano, Italy; 1783; architect: Giuseppe Piermarini. 

More info on Wikipedia: I Giardini della Villa Reale di Monza.





Das Dessau-Wörlitz

Garden Realm

near Dessau, Germany; 1790 and later; architect: Friedrich Wilhelm von Erdmannsdorff More info on Wikipedia: Das Dessau-Wörlitzer Gartenreich.





The English Garden

of Reggia di Caserta 

in Caserta, Italy; 1798 and later; architects: Carlo Vanvitelli and others . 

More info on Wikipedia: Il Giardino all'inglese della Reggia di Caserta.




Muskau Park

in Bad Muskau, Görlitz, Saxony, Germany; and Łęknica, Żary County, Lubusz Voivodeship, Poland; year 1815; architects: Eduard Petzold and others.  More info on Wikipedia: Der Muskauer Park.





Regent's Park 

in London, United Kingdom; c. 1833; architects: John Nash, Decimus Burton, and others.  More info on Wikipedia: Regent's Park.




Der Franzensburg

in Laxenburg, Austria; 1835; architects: Johann Ferdinand Hetzendorf von Hohenberg and others (the gardens) More info on Wikipedia: Der Franzensburg.




La Reggia di Capodimonte

in Neaples, Italy; c. 1850; architect: Federico Dehnhardt (risistemazione a giardini all'inglese) More info on Wikipedia: The English Gardens of Reggia di Capodimonte.





The Sintra Pena Palace

in Sintra, Portugal; 1854; architect: Wilhelm Ludwig von Eschwege.  More info on Wikipedia:  Parque e Palácio da Pena.





Château de Bois-Préau

in Paris, France; c. 1855.  More info on Wikipedia: Château de la Malmaison.




Central Park

New York, United States of America; 1857; architects: Frederick Law Olmsted e Calvert Vaux. More info on Wikipedia: Central Park.


Winslow Homer (1836–1910): "Skating on the Ladies' Skating Pond in Central Park, New York ", from Harper's Weekly, Vol. IV, Harper's Weekly Publisher, January 28, 1860.  Source: THE MET - The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, U.S.A. Website:  .





Le Parc des


in Paris; year 1867; architect: Jean-Charles Alphand.  More info on Wikipedia: Le Parc de Buttes-Chaumont.

"Il pleut aux Buttes-Chaumont". Photograph by Michele Leonardi.

"Parc des Buttes-Chaumont", 18XX. Source: Bibliothèque nationale de France, website:


Agence de presse Meurisse, Agence photographique: "Vue de Paris : les Buttes Chaumont, le Belvédère", 1926.  Source: Bibliothèque nationale de France, website:



"L'amour au parc des Buttes-Chaumont: "Ici, sur les Buttes-Chaumont, Eric et Jeanne on découvert le plaisir ultime de faire l'amour en hauteur ... vive l'amour, vive le plaisir, vive la vie!!!"  

Photographs by Michele Leonardi.




The Waddesdon Manor

in Waddesdon, Buckinghamshire, United Kingdom; 1874-1889; architect: Hippolyte Destailleur.  More info on Wikipedia: The Waddesdon Manor.




Parco Sempione

in Milan, Italy; 1893; architect: Emilio Alemagna. 

More info on Wikipedia: Parco Sempione.





in Berlin, Germany; 1894; architects: Karl Friedrich Schinkel and others

More info on Wikipedia: Viktoriapark.





Villa Borghese

in Rome, Italy; 1903.  More info on Wikipedia: Villa Borghese.

From the book: "Choix des plus célèbres maisons de plaisance de Rome et de ses environs" by Charles Percier, Paris, France, 1824. Source: ETH-Bibliothek Zürich, website:







  • Alfred-Auguste Ernouf:  "L'art des jardins: parcs, jardins, promenades",  Rothschild Éditeur, Paris, France, 1886.

Text in French.



  • Monique Mosser and Georges Teyssot: "The Architecture of Western Gardens: A Design History from the Renaissance to the Present Day",  544 pages, The MIT Press, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, U.S.A., 1991.


The Architecture of Western Gardens presents an international tour of garden design from the Renaissance to the present. As object and as literature, it is a sumptuous and unprecedented resource. The more than seventy essays by scholars from Europe and America all commissioned for this book - and over 650 illustrations raise the standard of garden literature to a new level. The result is an invaluable compendium that will serve as a fundamental starting point for exploring the many expressions of the place where nature and culture, project and diversion, work and pleasure meet. Organized chronologically, the essays and illustrations make up a mosaic of the garden in the Western world. The humanist garden in Renaissance Italy, the concepts of the "Sublime" and the "Picturesque," mazes, grottoes, and other curiosities, city parks, American land art, and even Disneyland are among the topics treated. Discussions of characteristic aspects of history and theory are followed by analyses of individual gardens as paradigms of their type: the Hortus Palatinus in Heidelberg, the Parc Monceau in Paris, the Park Güell in Barcelona, Stowe in England, and many more. The illustrations are a model of how iconography can function as text. They include ground plans meticulously redrawn from original archival material to provide precise information on the scale and nature of many of the projects, as well as a wealth of drawings, reconstructions, paintings, and photographs.





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Even the longest journey begins with a first step! Systemic Habitats is on line since the 18th of May 2012. This website was created to publish online my ebook "Towards another habitat" on the contemporary architecture and urbanism. Later many other contents were added. For their direct or indirect contribution to its realisation strarting from 2012, we would like to thank: Roberto Vacca, Marco Pizzuti, Fiorenzo and Raffaella Zampieri, Antonella Todeschini, All the Amici di Marco Todeschini, Ecaterina Bagrin, Stefania Ciocchetti, Marcello Leonardi, Joseph Davidovits, Frédéric Davidovits, Rossella Sinisi, Pasquale Cascella, Carlo Cesana, Filippo Schiavetti Arcangeli, Laura Pane, Antonio Montemiglio, Patrizia Piras, Bruno Nicola Rapisarda, Ruberto Ruberti, Marco Cicconcelli, Ezio Prato, Sveva Labriola, Rosario Francalanza, Giacinto Sabellotti, All the Amici di Gigi, Ruth and Ricky Meghiddo, Natalie Edwards, Rafael Schmitd, Nicola Romano, Sergio Bianchi, Cesare Rocchi, Henri Bertand, Philippe Salgarolo, Paolo Piva detto il Pivapao, Norbert Trenkle, Gaetano Giuseppe Magro, Carlo Blangiforti, Mario Ludovico, Riccardo Viola, Giulio Peruzzi, Ahmed Elgazzar, and last but not least Warren Teitz.  M.L.
















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