II Century AD
Villa Adriana near Rome, Tivoli, Italy.
An example of systemic habitat from the past.
The Digital Hadrian's Villa Project
The Digital Hadrian's Villa Project, October 2012
The Virtual World Heritage Laboratory at the University of Virginia.
Project Director, Bernard Frischer. 3D Modeling and Animation, Matthew Brennan.
Video Editing, Jack Roebuck.
- Henri Stierlin: "The Roman Empire: From the Etruscans to the decline of the Roman empire", Benedikt Taschen Verlag GmbH, Cologne, Germany, 1997.
Covers all the major Roman amphitheatres and arenas, temples and baths, aqueducts and fortresses, but also Pompeii and Hardpan's Villa at Tivoli Monumental in scale and technically highly developed, the architecture that produced the forums, baths, and aqueducts of the Roman Empire still dazzles us today. This volume deals with Roman architecture in Italy, France, Spain, the Rhineland and North Africa. Starting with Villanova and Etruscan culture, it includes the major buildings of the late Roman Republic and principally those of the Empire. Pompeii, the Golden House of Nero, Hadrian's Villa at Tivoli, and the Diokletian baths among many more, are considered. This volume describes an architectural history that interprets the entire Roman culture rather than merely describing its buildings, offering a new and exciting contribution to the history of Roman Architecture.
- John Bryan Ward-Perkins: "Roman Architecture", Electa Architecture, Milan, Italy, 2003 .
This volume begins with a comparison between the Parthenon and the Pantheon, whose simplicity and dignity represented a new level of sophistication in architecture based on a system of vaults and cement construction. The first part of the book examines the practices that originated in central Italy, the great complexes of the Republican era, and the projects of the Augustan age, culminating in the layout of the Forum. This is followed by analysis of the construction method known as opus caementicium, with examples of works from the complex of Trajan's Market to projects realized by Hadrian. The author goes on to consider the Rome of late antiquity, where key buildings provide powerful examples of the complex phenomenon of Imperial Rome. The book also discusses Roman architecture in such diverse areas as Thessalonica, Ephesus, Constantinople, Nimes, Verona and Pompeii, with an overview of developments in southern Italy and the provinces.
- John Bryan Ward-Perkins: "Roman Imperial Architecture", Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A., 1992.
The history of Roman Imperial architecture is one of the interaction of two dominant themes: in Rome itself the emergence of a new architecture based on the use of a revolutionary new material, Roman concrete; and in the provinces, the development of interrelated but distinctive Romano-provicial schools. The metropolitan school, exemplified in the Pantheon, the Imperial Baths, and the apartment houses of Ostia, constitutes Rome's great original contribution. The role of the provinces ranged from the preservation of a lively Hellenistic tradition to the assimilation of ideas from the east and from the military frontiers. It was—finally—Late Roman architecture that transmitted the heritage of Greece and Rome to the medieval world.
- UNESCO World Heritage: Interactive map :