Gardens  3












Schwetzingen Palace 

in Schwetzingen, near Heidelberg, Germany; 1700-1750; architects: Johann Adam Breunig, Alessandro Galli Bibiena, Peter Anton von Verschaffelt, and others.  More info on Wikipedia: Shloss Schwetzingen.

2D and 3D map by courtesy of Google Maps.




Ludwigsburg Palace

in Ludwigsburg, Germany; c. 1704; architects: Philipp Joseph Jenisch, Johann Friedrich Nette, Donato Giuseppe Frisoni, Leopoldo Retti.  More info on Wikipedia: Residenzschloss Ludwigsburg.

2D and 3D map by courtesy of Google Maps.








Perterhof Palace

in Perterhof, near Saint Petersburg, Russia; 1714-1723; architects: Jean-Baptiste Alexandre Le Blond, Bartolomeo Rastrelli.  More info on Wikipedia: Петергоф.

"This Russian Palace is Home to 150 Fountains", National Geographic.  Language: English.










in Moscov, Russia; c. 1730-1790 and later; architects: Ju.I. Kologrivov, Fëdor S. Argunovzbr, Karl Blank, Charles De Wailly.  More info on Wikipedia: Кусково.

2D and 3D map by courtesy of Google Maps.








Palazzina di caccia


di Stupinigi

in Nichelino, near Turin, Italy; c. 1733; architect: Filippo Juvarra.  More info on Wikipedia: Palazzina di caccia di Stupinigi.










Royal Palace


of La Granja


de San Ildefonso

in San Ildefonso, near Segovia, Spain; c. 1734; architects: Teodoro Ardemans, Andrea Procaccini, Sempronio Subisati,Filippo Juvarra and others.  More info on Wikipedia: Palacio Real de La Granja de San Ildefonso.



Herrenhausen Gardens

in Herrenhausen, Germany; c. 1676-1763; architects: Martin Charbonnier and others.  More info on Wikipedia: Herrenhäuser Gärten.











Schönbrunn Palace

in Hietzing, Vienna, Austria; 1696-1780; architects: Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach, Nicolò Pacassi.  More info on Wikipedia: Schönbrunn Palace.

2D and 3D map by courtesy of Google Maps.










Sanssouci Gardens

in Potsdam, Germany; c. 1745; architect: Georg Wenzeslaus von Kvobelsdorff.  More info on Wikipedia: Schloss Sanssouci.










Catherine Palace

in Saint Petersburg, Russia; 1752-1756; architect: Bartolomeo Rastrelli.  More info on Wikipedia: Большой Екатерининский дворец.







Royal Palace of Caserta

Caserta, Italy; c. 1774; architects: Luigi Vanvitelli (Luigi van Wittel-Lorenzani) and Carlo Vanvitelli.  More info on Wikipedia: Reggia di Caserta.

2D and 3D map by courtesy of Google Maps.








House of the Prince

in El Escorial, near Madrid, Spain; 1770-1780; architect: Juan de Villanueva.  More info on Wikipedia: Casita del Príncipe.

"En el parque de la Casita del Príncipe, El Escorial", photograph by Michele Leonardi.











National Mall

in Washington, United States of America; project: year 1791, architect: Pierre Charles L'Enfant.  More info on Wikipedia: National Mall.

2D and 3D map by courtesy of Google Maps.









  • Alfred-Auguste Ernouf:  "L'art des jardins: parcs, jardins, promenades",  Rothschild Éditeur, Paris, France, 1886.

Text in French.


  • Christian Norberg-Schulz: "Baroque Architecture", 223 pages, Phaidon Press / Mondadori Electa, Milan, Italy, 2003.

The "History of World Architecture" series offers scholarship, accessibility, extensive illustration and international scope. This text examines the principal 17th-century architectural themes - "capital city", "church" and "palace" - using the most famous examples of the period in Rome, Paris, Turin and Versailles. A large section of the book is devoted to religious architecture, analysing works by Della Porta, Maderno, Mansart, Borromini, Bernini and Guarini, envisaged in both a local and European context. The book ends with a general survey of the diffusion of the Baroque in Europe, in its various local versions, up until the development of an "international style".



  • Christian Norberg-Schulz: "Late Baroque and Rococo Architecture",  221 pages, Mondadori Electa / Rizzoli, Milan, Italy, 1991.

Explores the development and distinctive achievements of the sequential eighteenth-century architectural styles, most fully expressed in Central European monarchical, ecclesiastical, and monumental buildings.



  • Monique Mosser and Georges Teyssot: "The Architecture of Western Gardens: A Design History from the Renaissance to the Present Day",  544 pages, The MIT Press, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, U.S.A., 1991.

The Architecture of Western Gardens presents an international tour of garden design from the Renaissance to the present. As object and as literature, it is a sumptuous and unprecedented resource. The more than seventy essays by scholars from Europe and America all commissioned for this book - and over 650 illustrations raise the standard of garden literature to a new level. The result is an invaluable compendium that will serve as a fundamental starting point for exploring the many expressions of the place where nature and culture, project and diversion, work and pleasure meet. Organized chronologically, the essays and illustrations make up a mosaic of the garden in the Western world. The humanist garden in Renaissance Italy, the concepts of the "Sublime" and the "Picturesque," mazes, grottoes, and other curiosities, city parks, American land art, and even Disneyland are among the topics treated. Discussions of characteristic aspects of history and theory are followed by analyses of individual gardens as paradigms of their type: the Hortus Palatinus in Heidelberg, the Parc Monceau in Paris, the Park Güell in Barcelona, Stowe in England, and many more. The illustrations are a model of how iconography can function as text. They include ground plans meticulously redrawn from original archival material to provide precise information on the scale and nature of many of the projects, as well as a wealth of drawings, reconstructions, paintings, and photographs.









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Even the longest journey begins with a first step! Systemic Habitats is online since the 18th of May 2012. This website was created to publish online my ebook "Towards another habitat" on the contemporary architecture and urbanism. Later many other contents were added. For their direct or indirect contribution to its realisation, we would like to thank: Roberto Vacca, Marco Pizzuti, Fiorenzo and Raffaella Zampieri, Antonella Todeschini, All the Amici di Marco Todeschini, Ecaterina Bagrin, Stefania Ciocchetti, Marcello Leonardi, Joseph Davidovits, Frédéric Davidovits, Rossella Sinisi, Pasquale Cascella, Carlo Cesana, Filippo Schiavetti Arcangeli, Laura Pane, Antonio Montemiglio, Patrizia Piras, Bruno Nicola Rapisarda, Ruberto Ruberti, Marco Cicconcelli, Ezio Prato, Sveva Labriola, Rosario Fracalanza, Giacinto Sabellotti, All the Amici di Gigi, Ruth and Ricky Meghiddo, Natalie Edwards, Rafael Schmitd, Nicola Romano, Sergio Bianchi, Cesare Rocchi, Henri Bertand, Philippe Salgarolo, Paolo Piva, Norbert Trenkle, Gaetano Giuseppe Magro, Carlo Blangiforti, Mario Ludovico, Riccardo Viola, Giulio Peruzzi, and last but not least the kind Staff of 1&1. M.L.














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