AXES

 

 

 

"Human Axes": urban axes and axes on the geographical scale, but always on the human scale. The fake axes. The Linear City and the Vectors.

Also note the different north-south orientations, and the different dimensions.

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE URBAN AND

 

TERRITORIAL AXES:

 

 

 

The Karnak Temple Complex, 19th Century B.C.

 

 

 

The Hadrians Villa near Rome, Tivoli, II C. A.D.

The imperial little town (improperly called "Villa") of Hadrian was incredibly innovative and modern: separation of paths (the pedestrian paths were separated from those of the logistics, the carts and on horseback, and these last paths were at a lower level, partly underground); asymmetric and polycentric architectural axes; an axis network based on the movements of people from one destination to another into the little town. An urban deconstructivism of two millennia ago, but not formalistic.

 

 

 

The Avenue of the Dead,  Teotihuacan, 150-450 A.D.

 

 

 

The Angkor Wat Complex, 12th Century A.D.

The giant axes of Angkor Wat are structured according to big and smaller axes, and temples on a human scale.  In other simplistic words: a forest can be immense, like the Amazon Forest, but the trees that make up a forest are always on the human scale.

 

 

 

The Forbidden City, Pechino, 1406-1420 A.D.

 

 

 

The Naqsh-e Jahan Square in Isfahan, 1598-1629

 

 

 

The "Tridente" in Rome, 15th Century

 

 

 

"Château de Chambord" near Orléans, 16th Century

 

 

 

"Château de Chenonceaux" near Tours, 15th Century

 

 

 

The Palace of Versailles near Paris, 1623-1683

 

 

 

The "Avenue des Champs-Élysées" in Paris, 1670

 

 

 

The Kyoto Imperial Palace, Kyoto, 17th Century

 

 

 

"Palazzina di caccia" of Stupinigi, near Turin, 1733

 

 

 

Royal Palace of Caserta by Luigi Vanvitelli, 1774

 

 

 

"La Rambla" in Barcelona, 15th-19th Century

 

 

 

Karlsruhe, 18th Century

 

 

 

Brandenburg Gate, Berlin, 1791

 

 

 

Urban axis:

from the Trocadéro to Champ de Mars Gardens;

the Eiffel Tower complex in Paris, 1889

 

 

 

Urban axes:

The "L'Enfant Plan" for Washington, 18th C.

 

 

 

Local axis:

"Via della Conciliazione" in Rome, 1936

 

 

 

Florida Southern College Complex in Lakeland,

Frank Lloyd Wright, 1938-1946

 

 

 

An urban and territorial axis:

"E.U.R. '42", Rome, Marcello Piacentini, 1942-1960

As in the case of Washington, here the axis and secondary counter-axes are monumental and sometimes rhetorical, but are still on the human scale, though vaguely metaphysical. Here there is still space for human beings.

It is also one of the last examples of serious urban planning around the world.

In fact, the modern urban planning has produced only: zoning, that is "jams of buildings", "minestrone of buildings", etc.

 

An urban and territorial axis:

"E.U.R. '42", Rome, Marcello Piacentini, 1942

From Rome to the sea: the triple transport axis of  "Via Cristoforo Colombo" Road;  two mechanized transport side lines were planned, in addition to the central two directions of travel for cars.

 

 

 

Local axis:

The Marin County Civic Center in San Rafael,

Frank Lloyd Wright Architect, 1960

 

 

 

An example of  "Linear City" urban planning:

the "Sectorul Ciocana" in Chişinău, 21th Century.

The "Ciudad Lineal" (the "Linear City") as teorized by Arturo Soria y Mata (1844-1920) in 1882.

 

 

Another example of  "Linear City" urban planning:

"Bulevardul Dacia" in Chişinău, 21th Century.

 

 

 

"Av. Sete de Setembro" and others axes in Curitiba: something more than a simple road axis.

In the 80s the administration of Curitiba decided to create a metropolitan transport system based on 3 different types of public buses, etc., etc. This system was much cheaper and more efficient than an ordinary underground subway system.

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

THE FAKE AXES:

 

 

 

The Brasilia Plan, Lúcio Costa, 1956-1960

Brasilia, false axis.

An axis also invisible to human sight, on the ground.

An axis out of human scale, it's not an axis, it's a motorway!

 

 

 

 

... In other words, the Brasilia axis is like the Nazca Lines or a runway for planes:

 

 

 

Another false axis: a simple road is not an axis, of course.

 

 

 

Another false axis: a whichever commercial strip is not automatically an axis: there is yet not something.

 

 

 

The Chandigarh Plan, Le Corbusier, 1952-1965

Another false axis: the Chandigarh axis is just a road, not a real axis.

In the end: an axis good for machines is not an Axis good for Men.

 

 

 

The "Nuovo Corviale" in Rome, by Mario Fiorentino architect, 1975-1984

Another false axis: a one-kilometer residential building immersed in an urban nothingness, ie related with the nothing.

 
 
 
 

 

 

 

 

... But the axis evolution is the Line, it's Vector, it's "The Snake":

 

THE VECTORS:

 

 

 

The Linear City:

"The Obus Plan" for Algiers, Le Corbusier, 1930

 
 

The Vectors on the geographical scale:

"The Snake Habitat", Luigi Pellegrin, 1970

 
 

The Vectors on the urban scale:

"Sistema Territoriale", Cesare Rocchi, 2016

 

 

 

 

 

 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Even the longest journey begins with a first step! Systemic Habitats is online since the 18th of May 2012. This website was created to publish online my ebook "Towards another habitat" on the contemporary architecture and urbanism. Later many other contents were added. For their direct or indirect contribution to its realisation, we would like to thank: Roberto Vacca, Marco Pizzuti, Fiorenzo and Raffaella Zampieri, Antonella Todeschini, All the Amici di Marco Todeschini, Ecaterina Bagrin, Stefania Ciocchetti, Marcello Leonardi, Joseph Davidovits, Frédéric Davidovits, Rossella Sinisi, Pasquale Cascella, Carlo Cesana, Filippo Schiavetti Arcangeli, Laura Pane, Antonio Montemiglio, Patrizia Piras, Bruno Nicola Rapisarda, Ruberto Ruberti, Marco Cicconcelli, Ezio Prato, Sveva Labriola, Rosario Francalanza, Giacinto Sabellotti, All the Amici di Gigi, Ruth and Ricky Meghiddo, Natalie Edwards, Rafael Schmitd, Nicola Romano, Sergio Bianchi, Cesare Rocchi, Henri Bertand, Philippe Salgarolo, Paolo Piva, Norbert Trenkle, Gaetano Giuseppe Magro, Carlo Blangiforti, Mario Ludovico, Riccardo Viola, Giulio Peruzzi, Ahmed Elgazzar, and last but not least the kind Staff of 1&1. M.L.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

        e x t e r n a l    l i n k s :

 

 

 

 

RE-EDUCATIONAL CHANNELS :

 

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Number of Visitors from 2012 :

 

                 Thanks for your visit

 

M.L.